Highlights of History

Tomb of Cyrus, the great
in Pasargadae

The country of Iran, surrounded with current borders, had defined and named as Iran 200 years ago, when a decisive genuine leader convinced all tribes to forget their name and ancestral land heritage and and join a singular new branded force which protect every where and export leverage under one name. For more than 20 years, as long as he was leading and swording by himself and sleeping and roaming in his normal tent on four corners of country, his idea was strong and had obsessed young and old generations. He chosen his greatest commander as his replacing prince. Later came true, but new king was different. Royal customs in great palaces of safe capitals covered majesty, followed by succeeders too. Still we have Iranian borders and unified Iranian slogan in every body’s mind.

Before this story, not even under one name or fixed border, local rulers taxed to stronger succeeders and strongest was demanded to expands his zone by attacking to new neighbors. Sometimes faith or hierarchy name was exported and inscriptions announcing that in every corner of trading roads or portal of big cities. Once in a while, invasion attempted by strangers, sometimes they were very strange, like when Assyrian attacked to Median 2nd mil-BC, Ionic greek to Achaemenid 300.BC, Mongolian to Esmaeilit Muslims in 12th century, …

Through all these challenges, for more than 25 centuries, 70 dynasty ruled separately or commonly in Iranian lands. Some of them were been remarkable in expanding or exporting a new idea.


Median


The oldest civilization that mention in historical text as a central government with power stages and classified casts in their society were Median, expanded in east & northeastern valleys of Zagros mountains. According to Assyrian inscriptions and Ionic historians a nation mixed of different ethnic groups, gathered around central ruling court and trust to its order and judgments. He ruled as a social priest and royalty weren’t observed there. Not a specific religion or language had mentioned for them.


Achaemenid


Those are the most famous between other dynasties, first and only prehistoric movement that succeed many other local rulers in their surrounding, conquering empires from Mediterranean sea to Indian ocean. They are known to beat legendary stable enemies and reaches most far fields of central Asia, changing Babylonian regime, and ending Assyrian immortals. Not only on war field, but in economy and society there were other establishments named after them, like supported trading routs, introducing a new theme in architecture, defining royal global mintages, …


Arshaces


When Greek/Iranian lords were struggling for central power, a local northeastern state announced an rebellion and new independency which wasn’t been important till a northern neighboring tribe of Parni deciding to expand. Arsces I as their lord, succeeded that rebellion and many other loyal states in 3rd B.C, and formed a new dynasty. According to their original culture, they weren’t insisting on religious rules and supporting traders more than monks. Its known that they survived about 500 years due to feudal monarchy system of controlling borders. Surprisingly they were expanded from northern Mediterranean ranges to southern gulf lands in Arabian peninsula and in east they were neighboring Han dynasty in Himalayan slopes. It worked till internal struggles on power helped foreign problems in 224 A.D.


Sassanid


Sassanid dynasty had left a great mark on historical books. They started their courier based on national and religious incitations and it worked. Because, their preceder were invaders or non local tribes and they weren’t establishing or mandating new respected ideological orientation in people. So they were accepted and followed for more than 400 years till 650 A.D. Zoroastrianism were been mandated and official as language and mintage. Every social or governmental happenings were mixed with public rituals of zoroa- priests. Also their pure Iranian blood were been respected and accepted till strong islamic attacks succeeded them.


Ilkhanate


It actually named after royal Mongolian title of Khan, which means as lord, after great Mongolian openings of Chengis and his sons, their commanders divided his monarch in to several cooperating houses, each rolled by one of them. That helped to conquer wide areas unstoppable, and also they helped each other to settle civil wars. Based on their culture they never claimed for great throne and non wanted to own it, but great mother has almost prior authority and every one was helping family. Their brutal fighting skills were mixed with unbelievable support of trade and science and scholars had high rank in their society. But only 70 years after starting it was Plague that stopped them


Safavy


400 year s ago, a respected Sufi was exploring his thoughts and teaching his chamber, when his grand child was thinking differently. They mixed their Iranian Kurdish blood with idealistic Shia Sufism of grand father that convinced many locals in northwestern Iran to join them, Then was the time that professional army was from abroad hired for settle an order and also shiat announced as official religion. Some believe that this was starting of modern Iran when they found and support economy and trade strongly, and also matched first European easternologist sided in Persian gulf shores.


Qajar


Undoubtedly they are so important and effective inform current character of Iran. Its Founder Aghamohamad khan was originally from turkish nomadic culture, who convinced all other tribes and clans and local governments to join and support a singular troop force, mixed of all, to fight for security and stability, not for power and gold, and his way of life in simple nomadic tent and aggressive decisive Idea to protect fixed Iranian realm borders, attracted many other patriot around him and he achieved his goal after 20 years of swording in four corner of country. Current borderlines are mostly matching then. another great incident in this era was touristic visit of kings from other kingdoms which had great impression on them and country, official scholars and ministries beside artistic movements and adding constitutional phrase to monarchy of Iran was other great happening of Qajar era


Pahlavy


There was a new stage in Iranian history, when a mercenary army commander aligned with another foreign power to overcome a local house, surrounding capital and conquest hierarchy monarch of Qajar.
Later, Rezakhan showed more independent patriotic nationalistic persona and didn’t continue his accompany to foreign power and thanks to his wise ministers, many substructures had imported then, like public education and university, telecommunication, classic army, aviation, railroads and …
His establishment was just followed by his son. He was educated in abroad very familiar o European politics, but not decisive and charismatic as a king should be. Maids were consulting in their favor and information was filtered when people were been changing, graduating and revolt, he listened to their advices, left his monarch and country to sync.


Islamic Republic


There was a new stage in Iranian history, when a mercenary army commander aligned with another foreign power to overcome a local house, surrounding capital and conquest hierarchy monarch of Qajar.
Later, Rezakhan showed more independent patriotic nationalistic persona and didn’t continue his accompany to foreign power and thanks to his wise ministers, many substructures had imported then, like public education and university, telecommunication, classic army, aviation, railroads and …
His establishment was just followed by his son. He was educated in abroad very familiar o European politics, but not decisive and charismatic as a king should be. Maids were consulting in their favor and information was filtered when people were been changing, graduating and revolt, he listened to their advices, left his monarch and country to sync.

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