Nature of Iran

Iran, in western Asia with more than 1.6 square km stands in 17th stage of widest country. Current borders just defined about 200 yeas ago. geographically consists of ranges of mountains and plateaus spotted between Arabian peninsula and Siberian continents, has Caspian sea, biggest lake in world on north and Indian ocean in south. Iran has land border with 8 neighbor countries and many more over Persian gulf. Mountains and valleys generated water supply of rivers which could be long as 1000 kilometers. Geographical character of Iran can deliver frosted volcano in dry deserted area or wide harsh tundras in northern part, oceanic life style or camel farms, …


Mountains of Iran are recognized in three ranges and solo volcanos. Zagros, Longest Range doesn’t start inside country and arrived from west, where Iran,Turkey and Iraq has shared borders. Its totally long as 1400 kilometers which only 900km of it runs in Iran. Right after arrive It turns to south and end in Hormoz Straight. Highest peak arosed about 4400m and some part could widen as 400 kilometers. These huge rocky sponges absorb large amount of yearly fall and sourced three of biggest rivers over country like Zayanderud, Karun, Karkhe.

Alborz Range, Barriers southern coastline of Caspian sea and continued to eastern borders with Afghanistan, conserve all water moisture and cloud in a narrow area. Northern valleys and villages are green and vegetated thanks to clouds of sea. Southern valleys also has water all round year but not green as north.

Makran Range placed in central-southern parts and mostly surrounded by desert. But they have their significant personality and high as 4400 meter and yearly snow and rain fall. Their valleys could surprise any visitor, due to dissonance of very close dry deserts and their green and talented garden.

Hence that country had places on seismic belt, it is easy to locate volcanic incidents every where and more 20 remarkable lava pyramids could be observed. They are spreaded from most north-western Azerbaijany lands to south eastern states. Actually highest peak of country and middle-east, Mount Damavand 5610m is a stratovolcano which is highest volcano in Asia too. We Can name Sabalan volcano 4811m and Taftan volcano 4400m for examples.


Global changes in climate condition in last 3000 years, faced off central plateau from green woods and running rivers to dry steps and salt lake which some times turn to sand dunes and Yardangs. What if its not all dry deserted land which had variety of spieces, but it could be harsh and severe like 70 degrees of temperature change in a day or more 70 degree in summer days in Kalut. in central desert you find it uninhabited for 300 kilometers. Sand dunes raised for 500 meters in area wide like 100km, …
Many Technical & geological exploration have done during last century but still there are untouched areas…

Caspian Sea

May not be enough, but Caspian sea is the world largest lake, because its enormous in many other aspects.
Caspian sea is the world largest and longest lake, currently Stretched for more than 370,000 sq. kilometers between 5 countries Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan & Iran. Northern part has average depth of 6m where in south its third deepest lake by more than 1000m. Caspian sea water level is -28 meter below free oceans. Geological changes of 11 million year ago caused this separation between Caspian sea and other oceans. Thanks to 130 different rivers like Volga, Amuderya, Syrderya, Ural, Aras, Kura, Sefidrud and many big other names this lake survived and provided a biodiversity of life in its surrounding. From Those we have to name endemic seal and sturgeon. Fossil fuels are harvested in last century and global economy now is depended on Caspian oil & Gas…

Persian gulf

Historically named Persian Golf due to major control of Iranian rulers and basic cultural temperament of surrounding inhabitants. Nowadays still Iran has longest coastline around it and also has first hand in geopolitical control exchanges. Geographically, struggle between Arabian peninsula and Iranian plateau formed Persian gulf basin and Zagros mountains, Gulf has maximum depth of 90m and has its major inflow from Oman sea and Indian ocean via Hormoz Strait. Gulf includes coral and rocky reefs. Narrow strait of Hormoz(56km) and slow convection of oceanic inflow nested a diversified wild life in it like dolphins, pearl oysters, whales, green turtles, …
Natural Oil & Gas are vast and actually second largest inland and submarine resources lied here.


According to geographical phenomenon of Iran we can divide all vegetation flora diverse in six section which is mostly formed by altitude of those locations, and those are:
1-Forest and woodlands 2-Forest steppe 3- Steppe 4-Semi desert 5-Desert lowland 6-Salt lands
except the last section, salted area, in other parts we can find and explore Iranian fauna. In forests an green humid woodland which is allocated in southern coastlines of Caspian sea, diverse of Oak, Alder, Poplar or wing nuts are cover all northern slopes of Albors mountain, and specially named Hyrcanian forest due to almost 200 million years of age for some species in these location which had historical Hyrcan name. In higher altitude and up to 1500m beech forest are dominant and also Oak, Hornbeam or other hardwood are found in cloudy slopes. Temperature is strongly effective because it could raged more than 30 degrees in day and and in alpine tundras Oak, Ash, Elm, Maple, Cherry, … are surviving.
In other three dry zone where ever you look species of Tamarix, Haloxylon, Rosmaries, … are varied and easily grow in salted soils in more than 50 degree of hot sunny days to -50 of severe nights.
Beside these general sections, mangrove in some special islands or mosses & lichens in high mountains are possible too.


What if growing civilized area and warming changes caused a disaster for wild life, but high altitude cold mountainous area to low warm and dry steppes, provided a suitable condition for great number of animals to survive in Iran. On ground prey diverses like leopard, cheetah, Hyena, Wolf, Jackal, Fox,… are found in many parts. Asiatic cheetah and stripped hyena are endemic to Iran. In sky more 250 species of migrative or settled birds are observed, some are endemic to here like Barbatus or Caspian Durnas. Bears, mountain goats, wolfs, foxes, deers, snakes, rodents, … spread every where and any part their life depended on human’s society.
Lion, Tiger, Rhino, Elephant, … are extinct recently over here.


Due to wide spreading borders of iran from Caucasian mountains to Indian ocean, climate is varied in Iran. When mild and wet are possible inn south-western Caspian shores, dry coastal climate in south-eastern parts gathered camels and sand dunes and ocean around. Very could mountains with few days of temperature above zero are not so far from dry semidesert with more 70 degree hot spots. But overall, a dry- semidry climate, dominantly formed climate and life style in Iran. Mountains and widespread and watershed valleys are numerous and long, but majority of settlements are in dry plains or deltas of old rivers. Sometimes cities are suffering from more than 100 days from subzero temperature same year which total drought in half of year treating agriculture.


Migrative African clanes, arrived in Persian gulf shore in 30,000 years ago, when Neanderthals were been hunting in Zagros valleys, and Schythian nomads arrived 7,000 years ago from eastern Caspian ranges and crossing Alborz mountains, when Elamid and Bakonian culture in south central plateau civilized and start to mix with Median societies. Aryan, Parthian, Roman, Indian, Mongolian, Arabian, European & many more races added to them to form current mixture.
What is more Important is that now they are known for hospitality and pride, honoring historical achievements and cultural-idealogical advancement.
Digesting invasive cultures, refine and interpret useful facts to enrich their pride.

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